What is Mini-LED and why is Apple adopting it?



Mobile display technology has been pretty set in its ways for years now, with flexible technology as the obvious exception. OLED displays have all but replaced aging LCD tech, even in more affordable smartphones. Yet, high-end gadgets may soon be on the cutting edge once again with the move to Mini-LED.

Reports from the Apple camp hint that the company’s iPad and Mac notebooks lineups could use Mini-LED displays before the end of 2021. The company is reportedly courting Epistar and Sanan Optoelectronics as potential suppliers. As an emerging technology, these new displays will be quite expensive at first. But costs could fall throughout 2021 and 2020, so we may see many more manufacturers adopt them across product segments in the coming years.

Sounds intriguing, but what exactly is Mini-LED and what benefits does it offer over other display technologies like LCD and OLED? Keep reading to find out.

See also: AMOLED vs LCD – key differences explained

What is Mini-LED technology?

The name somewhat gives the game away here. Mini-LEDs use very small LEDs to produce the display’s light. This new technology traces its roots back to traditional backlit LCD technology. Except rather than using a single large or multiple smaller locally dimmed backlights, Mini-LED uses thousands of tiny LED backlights to offer vastly superior local dimming characteristics. To meet the Mini-LED classification, these backlight diodes measure less than 0.2mm across each.

Local dimming is very important for LCD displays because backlight bleed leads to inferior blacks and contrast ratios compared to OLED displays, where individual pixels turn on and off. This is a hybrid approach that aims to emulate the emissive nature of OLED, but with less design complexity. Think of it as LCD’s best shot at taking on OLED. Don’t confuse this with Micro-LED technology though, which is more closely aligned to OLED. But more on that in a minute.

LED Backlight Array TV

Moving to thousands rather than hundreds of tiny backlights allows for deeper blacks, improved contrast ratios, and brighter panels. That’s great for HDR content. All thanks to the smaller components. Mini-LED technology also scales from small to huge panel sizes quite easily, as there’s no meaningful limit on the size and density of the backlights. However, they are still bound by the size limitations of the LCD matrix that converts the white backlight into colors. But that’s not something that concerns smaller consumer electronics.

Mini-LED improves ‘local dimming’ via thousands of tiny backlight diodes

Mini-LED vs Micro-LED – the new LCD vs OLED

Mini-LED and Micro-LED are quite different. The former builds on LCD technology using smaller diodes for the backlights. The latter is an evolution of OLED, using even smaller and brighter individual red, green, and blue LEDs to directly emit colored light. In other words, each pixel produces its own light with Micro-LED, while Mini-LED still uses an LCD matrix to filter the backlight, but the backlight offers more control than a traditional LCD.

Read more: MicroLED explained – The next-gen display technology

This makes Mini-LED much more practical to produce compared to Micro-LED, and they should be more affordable as a result. Placing lots of tiny OLEDs on a display works fine for large TVs but it has proven very difficult in smaller, high pixel density displays for laptops and smartphones. The Mini variant is less likely to suffer from these production difficulties as it’s not as bound by pixel density. It should therefore be better suited to small form factors. Although only a few commercial TV products use this technology just yet.

Micro-LED still has the edge when it comes to contrast ratio and deepest blacks, but it comes at a much higher price point. What’s important is that the gap between LCD and OLED narrows with Mini-LED.

Why switch to these new displays?

Apple iPad Pro 2020 money shot

Ultimately it all boils down to superior image quality without breaking the bank. OLED may be better than LCD, but it’s still quite expensive. It isn’t always the preferred option for high-density laptop and tablet displays either, especially for peak brightness. Micro-LED is the superior technology on paper, but it’s currently too pricey even for Apple. Not forgetting manufacturing difficulties in smaller form factors at the moment as well.

Mini-LED aims to offer the best of both worlds. Image quality and contrast ratios that match OLED, and brightness that exceeds it, without paying over the odds. Early displays of this type will still command a premium, but the technology will become more affordable over the coming years. At that point, traditional LCD will be further relegated to budget markets.

Of course, Mini-LED is just one of a few new display technologies heading to the market. The list includes Quantum Dot (QLED) displays and flexible OLED for foldable phones. Form factor is still the biggest limitation when it comes to new phone display technologies. But keep an eye on tablet and laptop display tech for what could be instore for next-gen devices.


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